TICK: THE TICK-HOST INTERACTION
From here, two feeding phases follow:
- The first phase is characterized by a slow, continuous blood uptake (slow engorgement with short alternation of suction and salivary secretion)
- The second phase lasts for between one and three days and entails a massive engorgement and enlargement of the female tick. Salivary secretion and regurgitation are maximal at the end of this phase.
Throughout the feeding period, ticks inject products that may contain pathogens into the host. The minimum attachment time for an efficient transmission of pathogens depends on the agent. Estimates range from a few hours for Ehrlichia to 48 hours for Babesia.
Tick: Clinical consequences of tick infestation
Local reactions: These include inflammation, local edema and hemorrhages. A local hypersensitivity may develop and irritation at site of the bite may persist for months after the tick has been removed.
Transmission of infectious diseases (viral, bacterial or protozoal): Ticks are second only to mosquitoes as transmitters of infectious diseases to dogs and humans. In dog many diseases are transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus such as ehrlichiosis, babesiosis and hepatozoonosis.
Tick toxicosis: Certain ticks species may secrete toxins cause animal or human disease.
Tick: Why are ticks so difficult to control?
- Ticks are temporary parasites
- Ticks are widely dispersed in vegetation.
- Ticks have a remarkable longevity (months to years).
- Ticks have huge reproductive capacity (up to thousands of eggs/females).