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1. Damage of vaccine
It can be due to improper storage and handling of vaccine. Vaccines are very temperature-sensitive and should be stored at the proper temperature (2-8 ° C) and do not freeze. Use immediately after reconstitution and do not use chemical to sterilize syringe and needles. Besides that, disinfecting the skin with alcohol and antiseptics can potentially render the vaccine ineffective.
2. Improper route of administration
Every vaccine is developed to be given by a certain route, either subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intranasally. If a vaccine is administered by a different route that it was developed, it may not be effective.
3. Partial dose of vaccine administered
Full dose of vaccine which has the adequate virus titer should be inoculated into the animal in order for active immunization against the diseases.
4. Prolonged interval between vaccinations
The first time an animal is being vaccinated against a disease, repeated vaccinations are usually given 3-4 weeks (may vary between different vaccine manufacturers0 after the prior vaccination in order to achieve the best immune response or the anamnestic reaction. The first vaccine primes the immune system and the subsequent vaccinations push the immune response to even higher. If the interval between vaccinations is too long, the immune system is no longer ‘primed’ and less immune response will be produced from the subsequent vaccinations.